To See the Mongols 5: The Great Debate

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Friar William goes through stone-cracking cold, frozen toes, and the threat of demons to reach the camp of Mongke Khan. There, his interpreter causes him more problems, and he falls into the bizarre religious life of the camp before being drawn into a debate between Muslims, Buddhists, and Christians before the khan. Thanks for listening!

(MP3)

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 Sources: 

  • Carpini, Giovanni. The Story of the Mongols: Whom we Call the Tartars, translated by Erik Hildinger. Branden Books, 1996. 
  • The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck, translated by Peter Jackson. The Hakluyt Society, 1990. 
  • The Mongol Mission: Narratives and Letters of the Franciscan Missionaries in Mongolia and China in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, edited by Christopher Dawson. Sheed & Ward, 1955. 
  • Gladysz, Mikolaj. The Forgotten Crusaders: Poland and the Crusader Movement in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, translated by Paul Barford. Brill, 2012. 
  • Jackson, Peter. The Mongols and the West: 1221-1410. Pearson Longman, 2005. 
  • Morgan, David. The Mongols. Blackwell, 1986. 
  • Rachewiltz, Igor de. Papal Envoys to the Great Khans. Faber & Faber, 1971.